Why Didn’t the U.S. React More Forcefully to the DNC Hacking?

Because We Haven't Yet Defined the Rules of Engagement in the Cyber Age

Last year, Russian intelligence mounted an unprecedented attack on the integrity of the U.S. election. Russian hackers broke into the email of the Democratic National Committee and of John Podesta, Hillary Clinton’s campaign manager, and released the stolen documents strategically via the website WikiLeaks to help Donald Trump. Or so the U.S. intelligence community found in a “high confidence” assessment that was partly declassified in early January.

While Donald Trump at first denied that the Russian intervention had occurred at all and still denies that it had any impact on the …

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Why It’s So Hard to Stop a Cyberattack—and Even Harder to Fight Back

Evasive Culprits and Unclear Intentions Risk Escalation and Retaliation

Imagine that the United States is hit by a cyberattack that takes down much of the U.S. financial infrastructure for several days. Internet sites of major banks are malfunctioning. ATMs …