How the Apaches Maintained Control of the U.S.-Mexico Border for Much of the 19th Century

Even Though the U.S. Army Was Supposedly in Charge, the Chiricahuas Kept the Upper Hand in Trade and Diplomacy 

On February 3, 1873, representatives of the U.S. Army met with Chiricahua Apache leader Cochise at the foot of the rugged Dragoon Mountains. It was a tense meeting. Cross-border relations had been troubled ever since the U.S. had annexed a third of Mexico in the 1840s, and the Americans wanted Cochise to use his influence to stop raids from the Apache reservation across the border into northern Mexico.

But Cochise confidently let it be known that he would have nothing of it. He had only “made peace with the Americans,” but, …

TKTKTK | Zocalo Public Square • Arizona State University • Smithsonian

The Border Should Inspire Us, Not Scare Us

Communities Along the U.S.-Mexico Border Point the Way to a Bicultural, Bilingual, and Binational Future

The U.S.-Mexico border offers an enduring example of binational, bicultural, and bilingual living that could be a positive model for the future—if Americans and Mexicans are willing to look beyond …

‘When the Baby Has Colic I Talk With the Grandmother’ | Zocalo Public Square • Arizona State University • Smithsonian

‘When the Baby Has Colic I Talk With the Grandmother’

As a Mexico-Trained Doctor in San Diego, Brenda Green Gets the Whole Family Involved

I practice family medicine at a clinic just a few miles away from the Tijuana medical school where I earned my medical degree. But the journey from medical school to …

The 1929 Law That Turned Undocumented Entry Into a Crime

By Treating Migrants as Felons, the Undesirable Aliens Act Reinforced a Punitive Approach to Unauthorized Immigration

Too often, discussions of modern immigration policy are ahistorical, focusing on recent events while ignoring the past policies that led us, as a country, to where we are today.

That’s especially …

The Ancient Maya Cosmology of Conservation

In Their Worldview, Humans Were Not Superior to Nature. They Were But One Element Needed to Maintain Universal Balance.

In the middle of the jungle in central Belize excavating an ancient Maya water temple, I’m at the edge of a sacred pool, praying to Chahk, the Maya rain god, …